How to access to the documented Good Practices : First select one of the sub dimensions in the table of content, then one of the
3 digits titles in that sub dimension that each links to a page describing country practices ranked according to 4 categories: 4: Practice observed, 3: Practice largely observed, 2: Practice largely not observed, 1: Practice not observed. pages actually including country practices are identified by their title in Light blue.
0 Pre-requisite of quality
Data quality is regulated by a framework of statistical laws, policies, standards and practices, and technical and human resources. This framework cannot exist in a vacuum. Pre-requisites of quality, as one of the dimensions of data quality, do not comprise a qualitative dimension, but refer to the evaluation and understanding of the institutional context in which the statistical processes exist and which is essential to the other dimensions. This dimension presents the integrated nature in which available statistical laws, as well as essential human and technical resources, impact on other quality dimensions.
In order to highlight the specificity of this part of the framework (pre-requisites), and to differentiate it from the other "dimensions", the accepted convention is to start the numbering at 0 (Zero).
0.1 Legal and institutional environment
- 0.1.1 The responsibility for collecting, processing, and disseminating statistics is clearly specified
- 0.1.2 Data sharing and coordination among agencies producing data are adequate
- 0.1.3 Respondents' data are to be kept confidential and used for statistical purposes only
- The confidentiality of individual respondent’s data is guaranteed and that guarantee is widely known
- Procedures are in place to prevent disclosure of individual data
- 0.1.4 Statistical reporting is ensured through legal mandate and/or measures to encourage response
- A law or other formal provisions are adequate to mandate reporting of information to compile statistics
- Data producing agencies consider carefully respondent burden
0.2 Resources: Resources are commensurate with needs of statistical programs
- 0.2.1 Staff, financial, and computing resources are commensurate with statistical programs of the agency
- Staff resources for compiling statistics are adequate to perform required tasks
- Computing resources for compiling statistics are adequate to perform required tasks
- Financial resources for compiling statistics are adequate to perform required tasks
- 0.2.2 Measures to ensure efficient use of resources are implemented
0.3 Relevance: Education Statistics cover relevant information
0.4 Quality awareness: Quality is a cornerstone of statistical work
- 0.4.1 Processes are in place to focus on quality
- There is recognition in the organization that quality is a cornerstone of statistical work
- 0.4.2 Processes are in place to monitor the quality of the statistical program
- 0.4.3 Processes are in place to deal with quality considerations in planning the statistical program.
This dimension captures the notion that statistical systems should be based on adherence to the principle of objectivity in the collection, compilation, and dissemination of statistics. The dimension encompasses institutional arrangements that ensure professionalism in statistical policies and practices, transparency, and ethical standards.
1.1 Professionalism: Statistical policies and practices are guided by professional principles.
- 1.1.1 Statistics are compiled on an impartial basis.
- The terms and conditions under which statistics are produced guarantee the professional independence of the data producing agency.
- Professionalism is actively promoted and supported within the data producing agency.
- 1.1.2 Choices of sources and statistical techniques are informed solely by statistical considerations.
- 1.1.3 The appropriate statistical entity is entitled to comment on erroneous interpretation and misuse of statistics.
- The data producing agency comments when its statistics are misinterpreted or misused.
1.2 Transparency: Statistical policies and practices are transparent.
- 1.2.1 The terms and conditions under which statistics are collected, processed, and disseminated are available to the public.
- 1.2.2 Internal governmental access to statistics prior to their release is publicly identified.
- 1.2.3 Products of statistical agencies/units are clearly identified as such.
- 1.2.4 Advance notice is given of major changes in methodology, source data, and statistical techniques.
1.3 Ethical standards : Policies and practices are guided by ethical standards.
- 1.3.1 Guidelines for staff behavior are in place and are well known to the staff.
- A clear set of ethical standards has been prepared.
- Staff are made aware of the ethical standards.
2 Methodological soundness
This dimension covers the idea that the methodological basis for the production of statistics should be sound and that this can be attained by following internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices. This dimension is necessarily dataset-specific, reflecting different methodologies for different datasets.
2.1 Concepts and definitions: Concepts and definitions used are in accord with standard statistical frameworks.
- 2.1.1 The overall structure in terms of concepts and definitions follows internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
- The concepts and definitions follow internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
- see also Global Inventory of Statistical Standards developed by the UN Statistical system.
- The concepts and definitions follow internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
2.2 Scope: The scope is in accord with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
- 2.2.1 The scope of the dataset is broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
- The scope of the dataset is consistent with the needs to contribute to a sector wide system of education statistics. Scope of this dataset complements other datasets in the system of sector wide education statistics.
2.3 Classification/sectorization: Classification and sectorization systems are in accord with national and internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
- 2.3.1 Classification/sectorization systems used are broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
- The classification of statistics complies with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices
2.4 Basis for recording: Data are recorded according to internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
3 Accuracy and reliability
This dimension is based on the principle that data and meta-data should be presented in a clear and understandable way and should be easily available to users. Metadata should also be relevant and regularly updated. In addition, assistance to users should be available, efficient and performed in a reasonable time frame.
3.1 Source data available provide an adequate basis to compile statistics.
- 3.1.1 Source data are collected from comprehensive data collection programs that take into account country-specific conditions.
- Statistics on enrolment and education resources collected through a regular administrative school census program.
- Statistics on Expenditures are collected for all sources of funds and types of expenditure and by level of education.
- Statistics on the quality of learning outcomes collected through assessments of student achievement.
- 3.1.2 Source data reasonably approximate the definitions, scope, classifications, and time of recording required.
- 3.1.3 Source data are timely. Data collection system provides for the timely receipt of source data and detailed data.
3.2 Assessment of source data: Source data are regularly assessed and validated.
- 3.2.1 Source data are regularly assessed and validated
- Accuracy of information is routinely assessed.
- Appropriate measures are taken to validate data sources.
- Considerations relating to administrative data, the use of school registers is promoted and the accuracy of school registers is periodically assessed:
- A register of all schools exists and it is well maintained
3.3 Statistical technique : Statistical techniques employed conform to sound statistical procedures, and are documented.
- 3.3.1 Data compilation employs sound statistical techniques to deal with data sources.
- Data procedures are sound.
- 3.3.2 Other statistical procedures (e.g., data adjustments and transformations, and statistical analysis) employ sound statistical techniques.
3.4 Assessment and validation of intermediate data as well as statistical outputs are regularly assessed and validated.
- 3.4.1 Assessment and validation of intermediate data as well as statistical outputs are regularly assessed and validated
3.5 Archiving of source data and statistical results.
- 3.5.1 Archiving of source data and statistical results
- The database is structured according to relational standards.
- The database is well documented.
The quality dimension of serviceability looks at the extent to which statistics are useful for planning or policy purposes. It refers, mainly, to periodicity and timeliness, and consistency. Data is timely when it is current or up-to-date as defined by the owner of the data. Data must be on time and available when it is required, otherwise the credibility of the information system diminishes. Given that data is actually accurate, it looks at the extent to which they reflect a reality either of the moment or of the past.
4.1 Periodicity and timeliness: Periodicity and timeliness follow internationally accepted dissemination standards.
- 4.1.1 Periodicity follows dissemination standards.
- 4.1.2 Timeliness follows dissemination standards.
4.2 Consistency: Released statistics are consistent within a dataset and over time, and with other major datasets.
- 4.2.1 Final statistics are consistent within a dataset.
- 4.2.2 Final statistics are consistent or reconcilable over a reasonable period of time.
- 4.2.3 Final statistics are consistent or reconcilable with those obtained through other surveys and data sources.
4.3 Revision policy and practice: Data revisions follow a regular and publicized procedure.
This dimension is based on the principle that data and meta-data should be presented in a clear and understandable way and should be easily available to users. Meta-data should also be relevant and regularly updated. In addition, assistance to users should be available, efficient and performed in a reasonable time frame.
5.1 Data accessibility: Statistics are presented in a clear and understandable manner, forms of dissemination are adequate, and statistics are made available on an impartial basis.
- 5.1.1 Statistics data are presented in a way that facilitates proper interpretation and meaningful comparisons (e.g. layout and clarity of text, tables, and charts).
- 5.1.2 Dissemination media and formats are adequate.
- 5.1.3 Statistics are released on a pre-announced schedule and made available to all users at the same time.
- 5.1.4 Statistics not routinely disseminated are made available upon request.
5.2 Meta-data accessibility: Up-to-date and pertinent meta-data are made available.
- 5.2.1 Documentation on concepts, scope, classifications, basis of recording, data sources, and statistical methodologies and techniques is available, and differences from internationally accepted standards, guidelinse, or good practices are annotated.
- The meta-data for the statistical data provides users with an adequate information about what the data mean and about the methodology used to collect and process them.
- The meta-data also provides information on:
- 5.2.2 Levels of detail are adapted to the needs of the intended audience.
5.3 Assistance with the users: Prompt and knowledgeable support service is available.